THE MILLION WOMEN STUDY

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Million Women Study Publications

2014 publications

Bradbury KE, Balkwill A, Spencer EA, Roddam AW, Reeves GK, Green J, Key TJ, Beral V, Pirie K; Million Women Study Collaborators. Organic food consumption and the incidence of cancer in a large prospective study of women in the United Kingdom. Br J Cancer 2014 ;110:2321-6.

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Cairns BJ, Balkwill A, Canoy D, Green J, Reeves GK, Beral V; for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Variations in vascular mortality trends, 2001-2010, among 1.3 million women with different lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2014. [Epub ahead of print]

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Canoy D, Beral V, Balkwill A, Wright FL, Kroll ME, Reeves GK, Green J, Cairns BJ; for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Age at Menarche and Risks of Coronary Heart and Other Vascular Diseases in a Large UK Cohort. Circulation 2014 Dec. [Epub ahead of print]

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Crowe FL, Balkwill A, Cairns BJ, Appleby PN, Green J, Reeves GK, Key TJ, Beral V; on behalf of the Million Women Study Collaborators. Source of dietary fibre and diverticular disease incidence: a prospective study of UK women. Gut 2014. [Epub ahead of print]

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Floud S, Balkwill A, Canoy D, Wright FL, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V, Cairns BJ; Million Women Study Collaborators. Marital status and ischemic heart disease incidence and mortality in women: a large prospective study. BMC Med 2014;12:42.

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Gathani T, Ali R, Balkwill A, Green J, Reeves G, Beral V, Moser KA; Million Women Study Collaborators. Ethnic differences in breast cancer incidence in England are due to differences in known risk factors for the disease: prospective study. Br J Cancer 2014;110:224-9.

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Reeves GK, Balkwill A, Cairns BJ, Green J, Beral V; Million Women Study Collaborators. Hospital admissions in relation to body mass index in UK women: a prospective cohort study. BMC Med 2014;12:45.

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Yang TO, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V, Cairns BJ; Million Women Study Collaborators. Birth weight and adult cancer incidence: large prospective study and meta-analysis. Ann Oncol 2014;25:1836-43.

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2013 publications

Benson VS, Pirie K, Schüz J, Reeves GK, Beral V, Green J; for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Mobile phone use and risk of brain neoplasms and other cancers: prospective study. Int J Epidemiol 2013;42:792-802

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Bobrow KL, Quigley MA, Green J, Reeves GK, Beral V; for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Persistent effects of women’s parity and breastfeeding patterns on their body mass index: results from the Million Women Study. Int J Obes (Lond) 2013;37:712-7.

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Canoy D, Cairns BJ, Balkwill A, Wright FL, Green J, Reeves GK and Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Body mass index and incident coronary heart disease in women: a population-based prospective study. BMC Medicine 2013;11:87

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Canoy D, Cairns BJ, Balkwill A, Wright FL, Green J, Reeves G, Beral V; for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Coronary heart disease incidence in women by waist circumference within categories of body mass index. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2013;20:759-62

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Murphy F, Kroll ME, Pirie K, Reeves G, Green J, Beral V; for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Body size in relation to incidence of subtypes of haematological malignancy in the prospective Million Women Study. Br J Cancer 2013;108:2390-8.

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Pirie K, Peto R, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. The 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of stopping: a prospective study of one million women in the UK. Lancet 2013;381:133-41.

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Sweetland S, Parkin L, Balkwill A, Green J, Reeves GK, Beral V; for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Smoking, surgery, and venous thromboembolism incidence in a large prospective study of UK women. Circulation 2013;127:1276-82.

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2012 publications

Armstrong ME, Cairns BJ, Banks E, Green J, Reeves GK, Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Different effects of age, adiposity and physical activity on the risk of ankle, wrist and hip fractures in postmenopausal women. Bone 2012; 50 :1394–1400.

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Benson VS, Green J, Beral V, on behalf of the Million Women Study. The relationship between owning a cat and the risk of developing a brain cancer in a prospective study of UK women: comment on Thomas et al. Biol Lett 2012;8:1040-41

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Bobrow KL, Quigley MA, Green J, Reeves GK, Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Persistent effects of women’s parity and breastfeeding patterns on their body mass index: results from the Million Women Study. Int J Obes 2013;37:712-7

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Cairns BJ, Travis RC, Wang X-S, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. A short-term increase in cancer risk associated with daytime napping is likely to reflect pre-clinical disease: prospective cohort study. British Journal of Cancer 2012;107:527-30

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Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer and smoking: individual participant meta-analysis including 28 114 women with ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:946-56

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Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer and body size: individual participant meta-analysis including 25,157 women with ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies. PLoS Med 2012; 9 :e1001200.

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Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (Analysis and Writing Committee: Beral V, Bull D, Pirie K, Peto R, Reeves G). Menarche, menopause, and breast cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis, including 118 964 women with breast cancer from 117 epidemiological studies. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:1141-51.
PubMed

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Doyle P, Brown A, Beral V, Reeves G, Green J, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Incidence of and risk factors for Motor Neurone Disease in UK women: a prospective study. BMC Neurol 2012; 12 :25.

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Green J, Czanner G, Reeves G, Watson J, Wise L, Roddam A, et al. Menopausal hormone therapy and risk of gastrointestinal cancer: Nested case-control study within a prospective cohort, and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 2012; 130:2387-96.

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Green J, Roddam A, Pirie K, Kirichek O, Reeves G, Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Reproductive factors and risk of oesophageal and gastric cancer in the Million Women Study cohort. Br J Cancer 2012; 106:210-6.

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Kroll ME, Murphy F, Pirie K, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and subtypes of haematological malignancy in the UK Million Women Study. Br J Cancer 2012; 107 :879-87.

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Parkin L, Sweetland S, Balkwill A, Green J, Reeves G, Beral V, for the Million Women Study collaborators. Body mass index, surgery, and risk of Venous Thromboembolism in middle-aged women: A Cohort Study. Circulation 2012; 125 :1897-1904.

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Pirie K, Peto R, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. The 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of stopping: a prospective study of one million women in the UK. Lancet 2013;381:133-41.

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Reeves GK, Pirie K, Green J, Bull D, Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Comparison of the effects of genetic and environmental risk factors on in situ and invasive ductal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 2012; 131:930-937.

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Sweetland S, Beral V, Balkwill A, Liu B, Benson VS, Canonico M, Green J, Reeves GK, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Venous thromboembolism risk in relation to use of different types of postmenopausal hormone therapy in a large prospective study. J Thrombosis Haemostasis 2012;10:2277-86

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Wang XS, Travis RC, Reeves G, Green J, Allen NE, Key TJ, Roddam AW, Beral V. Characteristics of the Million Women Study participants who have and have not worked at night. Scand J Work Environ Health 2012;38:590-9

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Wright FL, Green J, Canoy D, Cairns BJ, Balkwill A, Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Vascular disease in women: comparison of diagnoses in hospital episode statistics and general practice records in England. BMC Med Res Methodol 2012;12:161.

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Yang TY, Cairns BJ, Allen N, Sweetland S, Reeves GK, Beral V, on behalf of the Million Women Study. Postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk and body size in early life and middle age: prospective cohort study. Br J Cancer 2012; 107 :169-75.

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2011 publications

Allen NE, Balkwill A, Beral V, Green J, Reeves G. Fluid intake and incidence of renal cell carcinoma in UK women. Br J Cancer 2011; 104 :1487-92.

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Armstrong ME, Cairns B, Green J, Reeves GK, Beral V, for The Million Women Study Collaborators. Reported frequency of physical activity in a large epidemiological study: relationship to specific activities and repeatability over time. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011; 11 :97.

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Armstrong ME, Spencer EA, Cairns BJ, Banks E, Pirie K, Green J, Wright FL, Reeves GK, Beral V; for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Body mass index and physical activity in relation to the incidence of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 2011; 26:1330-8.

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Beral V, Reeves G, Bull D, Green J; for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to the Interval Between Menopause and Starting Hormone Therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 2011; 103 :296-305.

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Cairns BJ, Liu B, Clennell S, Cooper R, Reeves GK, Beral V, Kuh D. Lifetime body size and reproductive factors: comparisons of data recorded prospectively with self reports in middle age. BMC Med Res Methodol 2011; 11: 7

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Green J, Cairns BJ, Casabonne D, Wright FL, Reeves G, Beral V, for the Million Women Study collaborators. Height and cancer incidence in the Million Women Study: prospective cohort, and meta-analysis of prospective studies of height and total cancer risk. Lancet Oncol 2011; 12:785-794.

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Liu B, Young H, Crowe FL, Benson VS, Spencer EA, Key TJ, Appleby PN, Beral V. Development and evaluation of the Oxford WebQ, a low-cost, web-based method for assessment of previous 24 h dietary intakes in large-scale prospective studies. Public Health Nutr 2011: 14: 1998-2005.

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Reeves GK, Pirie K, Green J, Bull D, Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Comparison of the effects of genetic and environmental risk factors on in situ and invasive ductal breast cancer. Int J Cancer 2011; 131 :930-937.

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2010 publications

Benson VS, Green J, Pirie K, Beral V. Cigarette smoking and risk of acoustic neuromas and pituitary tumours in the Million Women Study. Br J Cancer 2010; 102 :1654-6.

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Benson VS, Pirie K, Green J, Bull D, Casabonne D, Reeves GK, Beral V, for the Million Women Study Collaborators Hormone replacement therapy and incidence of central nervous system tumours in the Million Women Study International Journal of Cancer 2010;127 :1692-8.

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Liu B, Balkwill A, Reeves G, Beral V; Million Women Study Collaborators. Body mass index and risk of liver cirrhosis in middle aged UK women: prospective study. BMJ 2010; 340 :c912.

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Reeves GK, Travis RC, Green J, Bull D, Tipper S, Baker K, Beral V, Peto R, Bell J, Zelenika D, Lathrop M; Million Women Study Collaborators. Incidence of breast cancer and its subtypes in relation to individual and multiple low-penetrance genetic susceptibility loci. JAMA. 2010; 304 :426-34.

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Travis RC, Reeves GK, Green J, Bull D, Tipper SJ, Baker K, Beral V, Peto R, Bell J, Zelenika D, Lathrop M, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Gene–environment interactions in 7610 women with breast cancer: prospective evidence from the Million Women Study Lancet 2010; 375:2143-51.

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2009 publications

Allen NE, Beral V, Casabonne D, Kan SW, Reeves GK, Brown A, Green J. Moderate Alcohol Intake and Cancer Incidence in Women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2009; 101 :296-305.

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Banks E, Reeves GK, Beral V, Balkwill A, Liu B, Roddam A; Million Women Study Collaborators. Hip fracture incidence in relation to age, menopausal status, and age at menopause: prospective analysis. PLoS Med. 2009; 6:e1000181.

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International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer. Cervical carcinoma and sexual behaviour: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 15,461 women with cervical carcinoma and 29,164 women without cervical carcinoma from 21 epidemiological studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18 :1060-9.

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Liu B, Balkwill A, Roddam A, Brown A, Beral V on behalf of the Million Women study Collaborators. Separate and joint effects of alcohol and smoking on the risk of cirrhosis and gallbladder disease in middle-aged women. Am J Epidemiol 2009; 169 :153-60.

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Liu B, Balkwill A, Cooper C, Roddam A, Brown A, Beral V. Reproductive history, hormonal factors and the incidence of hip and knee replacement for osteoarthritis in middle-aged women. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009; 68 :1165-70.

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Liu B, Beral V, Balkwill A, on behalf of the Million Women Study Collaborators. Childbearing, breastfeeding, other reproductive factors and the subsequent risk of hospitalization for gallbladder disease. Int J Epidemiol 2009; 38 :312-8.

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Reeves GK, Pirie K, Green J, Bull D, Beral V; Million Women Study Collaborators. Reproductive factors and specific histological types of breast cancer: prospective study and meta-analysis. Br J Cancer 2009; 100 :538-44.

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Stevens RJ, Roddam AW, Green J, Pirie K, Bull D, Reeves GK, Beral V; on behalf of the Million Women Study Collaborators. Reproductive History and Pancreatic Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Cohort of Postmenopausal Women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18 :1457-1460.

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Stevens RJ, Roddam AW, Spencer EA, Pirie KL, Reeves GK, Green J, Beral V; on behalf of the Million Women Study Collaborators. Factors associated with incident and fatal pancreatic cancer in a cohort of middle-aged women. Int J Cancer 2009; 124 :2400-5.

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Sweetland S, Green J, Liu B, Berrington de González A, Canonico M, Reeves G, Beral V; Million Women Study collaborators. Duration and magnitude of the postoperative risk of venous thromboembolism in middle aged women: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal 2009; 339 :b4583.

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2008 publications

Benson V, Pirie K, Green J, Casabonne D, Beral V for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Lifestyle factors and primary glioma and meningioma tumours in the Million Women Study cohort. Br J Cancer 2008; 99 :185-190.

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Collaborative Group on Epidemiological Studies of Ovarian Cancer. Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 controls. Lancet 2008; 371 : 303-14.

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Couto E, Banks E, Reeves G, Pirie K, Beral V for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Family history and breast cancer tumour characteristics in screened women. International Journal of Cancer 2008; 123 : 2950 – 2954.

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Gathani T, Green J, Reeves G, Beral V. Pathology reports provided reliable and readily accessible records of surgical procedures performed in women with breast cancer. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008; 61 :402-6.

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International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer. Comparison of risk factors for invasive squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the cervix: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 8,097 women with squamous cell carcinoma and 1,374 women with adenocarcinoma from 12 epidemiological studies. International Journal of Cancer 2007; 120 :885-891.

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Pirie K, Beral V, Peto R, Roddam A, Reeves G, Green J, for The Million Women Study Collaborators. Passive smoking and breast cancer in never smokers: prospective study and meta-analysis Int J Epidemiol. 2008; 37:1069-79.

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Liu B, Balkwill A, Spencer E, Beral V. on behalf of the Million Women Study Collaborators. Relationship between body mass index and length of hospital stay for gallbladder disease. J Public Health. 2008; 30 :161-6.

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Liu B, Beral V, Balkwill A, Green J, Sweetland S, Reeves G. for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Gallbladder disease and use of transdermal versus oral hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal 2008; 337 :a386.

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Spencer EA, Pirie KL, Stevens RJ, Beral V, Brown A, Liu B, Green J, Reeves GK; Million Women Study Collaborators. Diabetes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease: the prospective Million Women Study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2008; 23 :793-799.

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2007 publications

International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer. Cervical cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data for 16,573 women with cervical cancer and 35,509 women without cervical cancer from 24 epidemiological studies. Lancet 2007; 370 :1609-1621.

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Liu B, Balkwill A, Banks E, Cooper C, Green J, Beral V on behalf of the Million Women Study Collaborators. Relationship of height, weight and body mass index to the risk of hip and knee replacements in middle-aged women. Rheumatology 2007; 46: 861 – 867

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Liu B, Sweetland S, Beral V, Green J, Balkwill A, Casabonne D on behalf of the Million Women Study Collaborators. Self-reported information on joint replacement and cholecystectomy agrees well with that in medical records. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2007; 60 :1190-1194.

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Million Women Study Collaborators. Ovarian cancer and hormone replacement therapy in the Million Women Study The Lancet 2007; 369 :1703-10.

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Reeves G, Pirie K, Beral V, Green J, Spencer E, Bull D for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. British Medical Journal; 2007; 335:1134.

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2006 publications

Canfell K, Beral V, Green J, Cameron R, Baker K, Brown A. The agreement between self-reported cervical smear abnormalities and screening programme records. Journal of Medical Screening 2006; 13:72-75.

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Canfell K, Sitas F, Beral V. Cervical cancer in Australia and the UK: comparison of screening policy and uptake, and cancer incidence and mortality. Med J Australia 2006; 185 :482-486.

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International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer. Cervical carcinoma and reproductive factors: Collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 16,563 women with cervical carcinoma and 33,542 women without cervical carcinoma from 25 epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer 2006; 119: 1108-1124.

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International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer. Carcinoma of the cervix and tobacco smoking: collaborative re-analysis of individual data on 13,541 women with carcinoma of the cervix and 23,017 women without carcinoma of the cervix from 23 epidemiological studies. International Journal of Cancer 2006; 118 :1481-1495.

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Reeves G, Beral V, Green J, Gathani T, Bull D, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Hormonal therapy for menopause and breast-cancer risk by histological type: a cohort study and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncology 2006; 7 :910-918.

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2005 publications

Banks E, Reeves G, Beral V, Bull D, Crossley B, Simmonds M, Hilton E, Bailey S, Barret N, Briers P, English R, Jackson A, Kutt E, Lavelle J, Rockall L, Wallis MG, Wilson M, Patnick J. Hormone replacement therapy and false positive recall in the Million Women Study: patterns of use, hormonal constituents and consistency of effect. Breast Cancer Research 2005; 8 :R8.

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Beral V, Bull D, Reeves G. Endometrial cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet 2005; 365 :1543-1551.

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Beral V, Reeves G, Banks E. Current evidence about the effect of hormone replacement therapy on the incidence of major conditions in postmenopausal women. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2005; 112 :692-695.

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Gathani T, Bull D, Green J, Reeves G, Beral V on behalf of the Million Women Study Collaborators. Breast Cancer Histological Classification: Agreement between the Office of National Statistics and the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Breast Cancer Research 2005; 7 :R1090-R1096.

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Roddam AW, Spencer E, Banks E, Beral V, Reeves G, Appleby P, Barnes I, Whiteman DC, Key TJ. Reproducibility of a short semi-quantitative food group questionnaire and its performance in estimating nutrient intake compared with a 7-day diet diary in the Million Women Study. Public Health Nutrition 2005; 8 :201-213.

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2004 publications

Banks E, Beral V, Reeves G on behalf of the Million Women Study Collaborators. Published results on breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy in the Million Women Study are correct. Climacteric 2004; 7 :415-417 (letter).

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Banks E, Beral V, Reeves G, Balkwill A, Barnes I, for the Million Women Study Collaborators. Fracture incidence in relation to the pattern of use of hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. Journal of the American Medical Association 2004; 291 : 2212-2220.

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Banks E, Reeves G, Beral V, Bull D, Crossley B, Simmonds M, Hilton E, Bailey S, Barrett N, Briers P, English R, Jackson A, Kutt E, Lavelle J, Rockall L, Wallis MG, Wilson M, Patnick J. Impact of use of hormone replacement therapy on false positive recall in the NHS breast screening programme: results from the Million Women Study. British Medical Journal 2004; 328 :1291-1292.

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Banks E, Reeves G, Beral V, Bull D, Crossley B, Simmonds M, Hilton E, Bailey S, Barrett N, Briers P, English R, Jackson A, Kutt E, Lavelle J, Rockall L, Wallis MG, Wilson M, Patnick J. Influence of personal characteristics of individual women on sensitivity and specificity of mammography in the Million Women Study: cohort study. British Medical Journal 2004; 329 :477-479.

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Beral V, Banks E, Reeves G,on behalf of the Million Women Study Collaborators. Effects of estrogen-only treatment in postmenopausal women. Journal of the American Medical Association 2004; 292 :683-687 (letter).

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Beral V, Reeves G, Green J, Gathani T, Bull D, Crossley B. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on breast and other cancers. In: Menopause and Hormone Replacement. Eds. Critchley H, Gebbie A, Beral V. RCOG Press. London 2004:136-150

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2003 publications

Million Women Study Collaborators. Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet 2003; 362 :419-427

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2002 publications

Banks E, Beral V, Cameron, R, Hogg A, Langley N, Barnes I, Bull D, Reeves G, English R, Taylor S, Elliman J, Harris CL. Comparison of various characteristics of women who do and do not attend for breast cancer screening. Breast Cancer Research 2002; 4: R1

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Banks E, Reeves G, Beral V, Bull D, Crossley B, Simmonds M, Hilton E, Bailey S, Barrett N, Briers P, English R, Jackson A, Kutt E, Lavelle J, Rockall L, Wallis MG, Wilson M. Predictors of outcome of mammography in the National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Journal of Medical Screening 2002; 9 :74-82

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Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer – collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58,515 women with breast cancer and 95,067 women without the disease. British Journal of Cancer 2002; 87: 1234-1245.

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Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50,302 women with breast cancer and 96,973 women without the disease. Lancet 2002; 360: 187-95.

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Million Women Study Collaborators. Patterns of use of hormone replacement therapy in one million women in Britain, 1996-2000. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2002; 109 :1319-1330

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2001 publications

Banks E, Beral V, Cameron R, Hogg A, Langley N, Barnes I, Bull D, Elliman J, Harris CL. Agreement between general practice prescription data and self-reported use of hormone replacement therapy and treatment for various illnesses. Journal of Epidemiology and Biostatistics 2001; 6 :357-363.

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Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer. Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease. Lancet 2001; 358 : 1389-1399.

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1999 publications

The Million Women Study Collaborative Group. The Million Women Study: Design and characteristics of the study population. Breast Cancer Research 1999; 1 :73-80

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Banks E, Richardson A, Beral V, Crossley B, Simmonds M, Hilton E, English R, Davis J, Austoker J. Effect on attendance at breast cancer screening of adding a self administered questionnaire to the usual invitation to breast screening in southern England. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1998; 52 :116-119.

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